L’information est un ensemble de données traitées afin de leur donner un sens et une signification. Ces données traitées et mises dans le contexte vont être analysées par la suite, pour les assimiler et les maitriser (connaissance), afin d’aider à la prise de décision.
donc pour résumer : Information = bien collectif = bien social.
Le paradigme du bien social : Bien social est le bien
offert aux citoyens sans contre partie.
L’apport de Machlup : qui est un économiste autrichien,
fut très influent dans le développement des sciences économiques en contribuant
à presque tous ses domaines et en apportant d’importantes clarifications en
méthodologie, théorie, et politique.
Il fournit une
classification de cinq types majeurs de connaissance :
pratique : centre d’intérêt professionnel, connaissance centrale et
instrumentale car elle nous permet de nous débrouiller dans le cadre de notre
intellectuelle : répond à notre curiosité intellectuelle ;
La connaissance de petit
bavardage et de passe-temps : curiosité non intellectuelle, pour nos
loisirs et notre stimulation émotionnelle ;
spirituelle, reliée à nos croyances religieuses ;
La connaissance non
désirée, apprise en dehors de notre champ d’intérêt habituel, généralement par
accident et que l’on retient sans trop faire d’effort.
F . Machlup a
systématiquement étudié l’apport économique des informations. Il a analysé le
poids des secteurs qui utilisaient les informations de façon intense et il les
a classées en trois groupes .Le secteur ou les informations sont crées, le
secteur ou elles sont diffusées et le secteur des services dépendant des informations.
L’information suppose la transmission/l’échange ; et
cette dernière suppose l’assimilation.
Annimal Robots and cognitive robotics embodied with biological brains represents a new trend of biological and artificial intelligence integration . So it certainly makes us wonder , is hybrid sytems possess a superior learning ability over their purely biological component ? and is there anyway that biological organisms can learn and make decisions if it was altered by enhancing the brain with Machine Rule Learning ? and how applying the aquired rules by machines affects the learning ability of theses hybrid systems ?
In order to unswer all theses questions scientists used ratbots that were designed and constructed as a hybrid brain machine system and they used computers to observe the process . they followed the video inputs from the camera and they controlled on computer the learning algorithms and the running rule operations in order to guide the rat . The ratbot performed learning tasks autonomously without any humain intervention .
They orgonised a series of training tasks to examine the ratbots learning ability in complex maze , and it took the rat several consecutive trials to learn the correct path .
Machine learning is a category of algorithm that make the software application more accurate in predicting outcomes without being explicitly programmed . The basic premise of machine learning is to build algorithms that can receive input data and use statical analysis to predict an output while updating outputs as new data becomes available.
Machine Learning was born from pattern recognition and the theory that computers can learn without being programmed to perform specific tasks . the good thing about Machine learning is the ability to independently adapt because it learns from the past computations to produce reliable , repeatable decisions and results .
What’s required to create good machine learning systems?
We all have goals and expectations for this year ! Some of us are planning to build a familly , others want to finish school , other people want to learn a language …. And some people are planning to make money !
well i was one of those who decided to make money last year , and i did ! and now i’ll share with you some of the ideas that probably you never tought about it .
first idea , if you’re a music fan and you know what people love to hear then the best thing that you can do and save money with is the ‘ virtual reality music festivals ‘ .
Second Idea , Start a social network for kids , it’s easy to make it blow if you know to make kids spend time on your social network .
Third Idea , Waste Management Business . it’s easy to start and easy to make it grow you just need to do your best .
the fourth idea , you can create a browser extention that detects song names from your youtube videos , instgram videos …
the fifth Idea , Start a blog , a youtube Channel and make a good content , let people follow you and get to know you . Try to be creatif to grow fast .
we will talk more about each idea and how to apply it in the next articles …
the information behavior refers to the study of how people need , seek , give ,and use information in different contexts, including the workplace and everyday living . it’s also a process that includes multiple stages of question asking and refining, information gathering and evaluating…synthesis and use of information .
Of course you must be asking yourself why would i spend time studying information behaviour ? well , let me tell you that iformation behavior will let you identify different user groups and their information needs ; i mean you’ll get to know how people think and behave in response to information needs , you’ll also have patterns of behavious .
Also , the study of information bahavior will give you the chance to identify the best practices to inform information system design .
Computing as a service over the internetWe often hear the word ‘ cloud ‘ wich actually reers to Cloud Computing . Cloud computing is the delivery of on-demand computing resources over the internet on a pay-for-use basis .
Elastic resources — Scale up or down quickly and easily to meet demand .
Metered service so you only pay for what you use .
Self service — All the IT resources you need with self-service access .
Software as a service (SaaS)
Cloud-based applications — or software as a service — run on distant computers “in the cloud” that are owned and operated by others and that connect to users’ computers via the internet and, usually, a web browser.
The benefits of SaaS
You can sign up and rapidly start using innovative business apps
Apps and data are accessible from any connected computer
No data is lost if your computer breaks, as data is in the cloud
The service is able to dynamically scale to usage needs
Platform as a service (PaaS)
as a service provides a cloud-based environment with everything
required to support the complete lifecycle of building and delivering
web-based (cloud) applications — without the cost and complexity of
buying and managing the underlying hardware, software, provisioning, and
The benefits of PaaS
Develop applications and get to market faster
Deploy new web applications to the cloud in minutes
Reduce complexity with middleware as a service
Infrastructure as a service (IaaS)
Infrastructure as a service provides companies with computing resources including servers, networking, storage, and data center space on a pay-per-use basis.
The benefits of IaaS
No need to invest in your own hardware
Infrastructure scales on demand to support dynamic workloads
Flexible, innovative services available on demand
clouds are owned and operated by companies that offer rapid access over
a public network to affordable computing resources. With public cloud
services, users don’t need to purchase hardware, software, or supporting
infrastructure, which is owned and managed by providers.
Key aspects of public cloud
Innovative SaaS business apps for applications ranging from
customer resource management (CRM) to transaction management and data
Flexible, scalable IaaS for storage and compute services on a moment’s notice
Powerful PaaS for cloud-based application development and deployment environments
private cloud is infrastructure operated solely for a single
organization, whether managed internally or by a third party, and hosted
either internally or externally. Private clouds can take advantage of
cloud’s efficiencies, while providing more control of resources and
steering clear of multi-tenancy.
=> Key aspects of private cloud
A self-service interface controls services, allowing IT staff to quickly provision, allocate, and deliver on-demand IT resources
Highly automated management of resource pools for everything from compute capability to storage, analytics, and middleware
Sophisticated security and governance designed for a company’s specific requirements
hybrid cloud uses a private cloud foundation combined with the
strategic integration and use of public cloud services. The reality is a
private cloud can’t exist in isolation from the rest of a company’s IT
resources and the public cloud. Most companies with private clouds will
evolve to manage workloads across data centers, private clouds, and
public clouds – thereby creating hybrid clouds.
Key aspects of hybrid cloud
Allows companies to keep the critical applications and sensitive data in a traditional data center environment or private cloud
Enables taking advantage of public cloud resources like SaaS, for
the latest applications, and IaaS, for elastic virtual resources
Facilitates portability of data, apps and services and more choices for deployment models