Categories
Information Behaviour Information Science

L’accès à l’information au Maroc

L’information est l’ensemble organisé de données, qui constitue un message sur un phénomène ou un évènement donné, elle permet de résoudre des problèmes et de prendre des décisions .

Le droit est l’ensemble des règles qui régissent les rapports des hommes entre eux. Il a pour but d’organiser la société afin de protéger les intérêts et les biens indispensables à la vie en commun.

L’accès à l’information constitue donc un droit fondamental et un moyen efficace d’amélioration de la transparence, de prévention de la corruption et de consolidation du Système national d’intégrité.

Il recouvre deux aspects qui sont indissociables :

  • le droit d’informer et le droit d’être informé.
  • Aujourd’hui, il est passé d’un droit lié à la gouvernance administrative, pour devenir un droit fondamental de la personne humaine .

Les principes universels du droit à l’information sont nombreux, on cite :

1. L’accès à l’information est un droit universel : chacun peut demander de l’information, peu importe sa nationalité ou sa profession.

2. L’accès est la règle; le secret est l’exception : car toute l’information détenue par les organismes gouvernementaux est publique.

3. Le droit s’applique à tous les organismes publics.

4. La procédure de demande devrait être simple, rapide et gratuite.

5. Les responsables ont l’obligation d’aider les demandeurs

6. Tout refus doit être justifiés : les raisons doivent être indiquées clairement.

7. Les organismes publics devraient publier systématiquement l’information de base : Tout organisme public devrait rendre facilement accessible l’information concernant ses fonctions et ses responsabilités, sans qu’il soit nécessaire d’en faire la demande.

8. Le droit devrait être garanti par un organisme indépendant : comme un protecteur du citoyen ou un commissaire pour examiner les refus, faire de la sensibilisation et défendre le droit d’accès à l’information.

Categories
Data Science Information Science

L’information comme bien social et l’apport de Machlup

L’information est un ensemble de données traitées afin de leur donner un sens et une signification.  Ces données traitées et mises dans le contexte vont être analysées par la suite, pour les assimiler et les maitriser (connaissance), afin d’aider à la prise de décision.

donc pour résumer : Information = bien collectif = bien social.

Le paradigme du bien social : Bien social est le bien offert aux citoyens sans contre partie.

L’apport de Machlup : qui est un économiste autrichien, fut très influent dans le développement des sciences économiques en contribuant à presque tous ses domaines et en apportant d’importantes clarifications en méthodologie, théorie, et politique.

  Il fournit une classification de cinq types majeurs de connaissance :

  •  La connaissance pratique : centre d’intérêt professionnel, connaissance centrale et instrumentale car elle nous permet de nous débrouiller dans le cadre de notre travail ;
  •  La connaissance intellectuelle : répond à notre curiosité intellectuelle ;
  •  La connaissance de petit bavardage et de passe-temps : curiosité non intellectuelle, pour nos loisirs et notre stimulation émotionnelle ;
  •  La connaissance spirituelle, reliée à nos croyances religieuses ;
  •  La connaissance non désirée, apprise en dehors de notre champ d’intérêt habituel, généralement par accident et que l’on retient sans trop faire d’effort.

 F . Machlup a systématiquement étudié l’apport économique des informations. Il a analysé le poids des secteurs qui utilisaient les informations de façon intense et il les a classées en trois groupes .Le secteur ou les informations sont crées, le secteur ou elles sont diffusées et le secteur des services dépendant  des informations.

L’information suppose la transmission/l’échange ; et cette dernière suppose l’assimilation.

Categories
Data Science Data Trends ML / AI Cognitive Computing Development

Maze Learning by Hybrid Brain-Computer

Annimal Robots and cognitive robotics embodied with biological brains represents a new trend of biological and artificial intelligence integration . So it certainly makes us wonder , is hybrid sytems possess a superior learning ability over their purely biological component ? and is there anyway that biological organisms can learn and make decisions if it was altered by enhancing the brain with Machine Rule Learning ? and how applying the aquired rules by machines affects the learning ability of theses hybrid systems ?

In order to unswer all theses questions scientists used ratbots that were designed and constructed as a hybrid brain machine system and they used computers to observe the process . they followed the video inputs from the camera and they controlled on computer the learning algorithms and the
running rule operations in order to guide the rat . The ratbot performed learning tasks autonomously without any humain intervention .

They orgonised a series of training tasks to examine the ratbots learning ability in complex maze , and it took the rat several consecutive trials to learn the correct path .

Click Here to Download The Full Scientific Article .


Categories
Data Engineering and Data Warehousing Data Science

Machine learning

Machine learning is a category of algorithm that make the software application more accurate in predicting outcomes without being explicitly programmed .
The basic premise of machine learning is to build algorithms that can receive input data and use statical analysis to predict an output while updating outputs as new data becomes available.

Machine Learning was born from pattern recognition and the theory that computers can learn without being programmed to perform specific tasks . the good thing about Machine learning is the ability to independently adapt because it learns from the past computations to produce reliable , repeatable decisions and results .

What’s required to create good machine learning systems?

  • Data preparation capabilities.
  • Algorithms – basic and advanced.
  • Automation and iterative processes.
  • Scalability.
  • Ensemble modeling.



Categories
Data Science Database Management and Architecture

What is a Data Base Architecture

What Is Database Architecture?

Database architecture uses programming languages to design a particular type of software for businesses or organizations.

Database architecture focuses on the design, development, implementation and maintenance of computer programs that store and organize information for businesses, agencies and institutions.

A database architect develops and implements software to meet the needs of users.

The design of a DBMS depends on its architecture. It can be centralized or decentralized or hierarchical.

The architecture of a DBMS can be seen as either single tier or multi-tier. The tiers are classified as follows :

  1. 1-tier architecture
  2. 2-tier architecture
  3. 3-tier architecture
  4. n-tier architecture

we will explain more in the next article theses types of architecture .

Categories
Data Engineering and Data Warehousing Data Science

What is Data Warehouse ?

In many organizations, we want a central “store” of all of our entities, concepts, metadata, and historical information . For doing data validation, complex mining, analysis, prediction, … and this is the data warehouse.

To be more precise , data warehouse is simply a single, complete, and consistent store of data obtained from a variety of sources and made available to end users in a way they can understand and use it in a business context.”

One of the “modern” uses of the data warehouse is not only to support analytics but to serve as a reference to all of the entities in the organization.

In breif , Data warehouse is a collection of data that is used primarily in organizational decision making .And In order for data to be effective, Data Warehouse must be: Consistent ,Well integrated ,Well defined and Time stamped.

Categories
Business Intelligence and Strategy Data Science

What is Business Intelligence ?

Companies need to translate data into information to plan for future business strategies. For most companies, valuable data is stored in massive spreadsheets or servers. Ideally, this data should provide you with information on sales trends, consumer behavior and resources allocation. Company data can indicate the viability of your product and help in the planning of your future growth. Hence data can help maximize revenues and reduce costs.

Before we talk about Business Intelligence , we should first highlight the fact that , Companies need to translate data into information to plan for future business strategies , because for most companies , valuable data is stored in massive spreadsheets or servers . In perfect senarios , this data should provide you with information on sales trends , consumer behavior and ressources allocation . To be more precise , company data can indicate the viability of your product and plan for your future growth . Hence data can maximize revenues and reduce costs . that’s why we need BI solutions .

Business Intelligence ( BI ) is a segment of information technology that comprises software systems that enable finding , storing , organising and supplying data ; when incorporated into an information system , it enables company to utilise real time analysis of information .

in brief , it can be considered as a software that enables business users to see and use large amounts of complex data (e.g. multidimensional analysis, query tools, data mining tools) .

Cognos.com defines the BI as a category of applications and technologies for gathering, storing, analysing, reporting on and providing access to data to help enterprise users make better business decisions . 

So to resume it all , we can say that the business intelligence is a management decision support framework that empowers business users to understand data => resulting in actionable insights that improve the business.

Categories
Data Science Information Behaviour

What is Information Behavior ?

the information behavior refers to the study of how people need , seek , give ,and use information in different contexts, including the workplace and everyday living . it’s also a process that includes multiple stages of question asking and refining, information gathering and evaluating…synthesis and use of information .

Of course you must be asking yourself why would i spend time studying information behaviour ? well , let me tell you that iformation behavior will let you identify different user groups and their information needs ; i mean you’ll get to know how people think and behave in response to information needs , you’ll also have patterns of behavious .

Also , the study of information bahavior will give you the chance to identify the best practices to inform information system design .





Categories
Business Intelligence and Strategy Data Science

The Pareto Principle

Pareto Principle

Pareto principle or 80/20 law or law of vital few , states that 80% of the conseuences are caused by 20% of the causes . The Pareto principle is discovered hundread years ago by the italien economist and sociologist Vilfredo Pareto .

It was back then only in observation related to land owners : 80% of the land was owned by 20% if the population . Then he carried out a survey on other countries and found to his surprise => the same distribution is applied…

The pareto principle was considered over the time as an axiom , and used on many fields .

In mathematics : the 80/20 is followed by the pareto distribution .

In software engineering for the optimization efforts .

In Sports : 20% of the exercices and habits have 80% of the impact .

In health and safety : 20% of the hazards accounts for 80% of the injuries …

etc …


Categories
Cloud and Distributed Computing

Cloud Computing


Computing as a service over the internet

Computing as a service over the internetWe often hear the word ‘ cloud ‘ wich actually reers to Cloud Computing . Cloud computing is the delivery of on-demand computing resources over the internet on a pay-for-use basis .

  • Elastic resources — Scale up or down quickly and easily to meet demand .
  • Metered service so you only pay for what you use .
  • Self service — All the IT resources you need with self-service access .

Software as a service (SaaS)

Cloud-based applications — or software as a service — run on distant computers “in the cloud” that are owned and operated by others and that connect to users’ computers via the internet and, usually, a web browser.

The benefits of SaaS

  • You can sign up and rapidly start using innovative business apps
  • Apps and data are accessible from any connected computer
  • No data is lost if your computer breaks, as data is in the cloud
  • The service is able to dynamically scale to usage needs


Platform as a service (PaaS)

Platform as a service provides a cloud-based environment with everything required to support the complete lifecycle of building and delivering web-based (cloud) applications — without the cost and complexity of buying and managing the underlying hardware, software, provisioning, and hosting.

The benefits of PaaS

  • Develop applications and get to market faster
  • Deploy new web applications to the cloud in minutes
  • Reduce complexity with middleware as a service

Infrastructure as a service (IaaS)

Infrastructure as a service provides companies with computing resources including servers, networking, storage, and data center space on a pay-per-use basis.

The benefits of IaaS

  • No need to invest in your own hardware
  • Infrastructure scales on demand to support dynamic workloads
  • Flexible, innovative services available on demand


Public cloud

Public clouds are owned and operated by companies that offer rapid access over a public network to affordable computing resources. With public cloud services, users don’t need to purchase hardware, software, or supporting infrastructure, which is owned and managed by providers.

Key aspects of public cloud

  • Innovative SaaS business apps for applications ranging from customer resource management (CRM) to transaction management and data analytics
  • Flexible, scalable IaaS for storage and compute services on a moment’s notice
  • Powerful PaaS for cloud-based application development and deployment environments

Private cloud

A private cloud is infrastructure operated solely for a single organization, whether managed internally or by a third party, and hosted either internally or externally. Private clouds can take advantage of cloud’s efficiencies, while providing more control of resources and steering clear of multi-tenancy.

=> Key aspects of private cloud

  • A self-service interface controls services, allowing IT staff to quickly provision, allocate, and deliver on-demand IT resources
  • Highly automated management of resource pools for everything from compute capability to storage, analytics, and middleware
  • Sophisticated security and governance designed for a company’s specific requirements

Hybrid cloud

A hybrid cloud uses a private cloud foundation combined with the strategic integration and use of public cloud services. The reality is a private cloud can’t exist in isolation from the rest of a company’s IT resources and the public cloud. Most companies with private clouds will evolve to manage workloads across data centers, private clouds, and public clouds – thereby creating hybrid clouds.

Key aspects of hybrid cloud

  • Allows companies to keep the critical applications and sensitive data in a traditional data center environment or private cloud
  • Enables taking advantage of public cloud resources like SaaS, for the latest applications, and IaaS, for elastic virtual resources
  • Facilitates portability of data, apps and services and more choices for deployment models